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RSG Performance Group

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Mahmood Kapustin
Mahmood Kapustin

Falk Series F Navigator Map Update Europe 2013 1



The most common method for measuring relaxation times is to acquire a series of images in which the time to readout after inversion had been varied over a sufficiently wide range. The relaxation time can then be calculated on a pixel-by-pixel basis by fitting the image intensity of the series against the parameter that was used to vary the relaxation time weight. This pixel-wise relaxation time fitting needs to meet two conditions in order to be accurate and to avoid bias: 1) the variation in weight of other factors (different relaxation times, diffusion, etc.) is negligible or corrected for, and 2) there is negligible physical displacement between the images in the series. In the case of CMR, cardiac and respiratory motion make meeting both conditions more challenging: avoiding motion artifacts limits the pulse sequence choices. Cardiac motion is normally avoided by only acquiring for a sufficiently short duration at mid-systole or end-diastole, while respiratory motion can be avoided or compensated for through breath holding or navigator gating, respectively. Any residual image-to-image displacement (shifts due to respiration or myocardial size differences due to contraction of the heart) can potentially be corrected through affine or non-rigid image registration after the acquisition and before pixel-by-pixel fitting. After the maps have been generated, several segmentation options are available: 1) the entire LV myocardium is segmented to establish an average value or perform a threshold-based analysis to determine areas of abnormality as a percentage of the LV myocardium, 2) the septal region is segmented, 3) the myocardium is divided into 16 segments as defined by the American Heart Association guidelines, or 4) ROIs are drawn in regions of pathology and healthy (remote) tissue for comparison. Option 2 (septal assessment) is mandatory for T2* mapping due to frequent artifacts in other regions of the myocardium (especially off-resonance close to the air-tissue interface), and might also be preferable for the assessment of diffuse myocardial disease by T1 and T2 mapping because of a high level of robustness and ease of omitting contamination from epicardial fat.




Falk Series F Navigator Map Update Europe 2013 1


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